Slavic & Balkan Titles:
Greece: Ethnicity And Sovereignty 1820–1994
ISBN: (13) 978-1-85207-895-9
Extent: 1 volume, 446 pages, including 56 maps, index
Author:J. M. Wagstaff, Emeritus Professor of Geography, Univ. of Southampton, UK ISBN: (10) 1-85207-895-2 Published: 2002 Paper: Printed on acid free paper Binding: Library bindings with gilt finish See sample pages:
A knowledge of the geographical dimension is fundamental to an understanding of how independent Greece came to be defined in terms of territory, how it actually grew in size and how its driving force, the Great Idea of uniting all 'Greeks' within one territorial state, was made reality.
Aimed at presenting diplomats, politicians and scholars with the cartographic and documentary material for reflecting on the development of Greece and the continuing controversies over its territory and sovereignty, the atlas contains material relevant to understanding not only the complex political problems in the wider Balkans but also the strained relationships between Greece and Turkey.
While the origins and expansion of the modern Greek state are well known, at least in outline, the related geography has been neglected. Yet a knowledge of the geographical dimension is fundamental to an understanding of how independent Greece came to be defined in terms of territory, how it actually grew in size and how its driving force, the Great Idea of uniting all 'Greeks' within one territorial state, was made reality. The ambitions of Greek leaders had both geographical dimensions and territorial consequences which not only shaped the nature and extent of Greek sovereignty in the past but have relevance today, especially in relation to Macedonia and the Aegean Sea.
Aimed at presenting diplomats, politicians and scholars with the cartographic and documentary material for reflecting on the development of Greece and the continuing controversies over its territory and sovereignty, the atlas contains material relevant to understanding not only the complex political problems in the wider Balkans but also the strained relationships between Greece and Turkey. Despite being based upon selection and interpretation, maps often set up a 'discourse of conviction' not least over the spatial distribution of ethnic and religious communities. Here the hope is that the maps will encourage both debate and deeper understanding, for the issues which they raise are not just a matter of history but of continuing political discourse.
The documents were scattered through a variety of publications, and having them together will prove invaluable to diplomats, political analysts and historians. The collection includes much material that is unfamiliar or difficult of access, such as the Amnesty of Mudros (1918) which took the Ottoman Empire out of the First World War and prepared the way for the Greek occupation of the Smyrna/Izmir area of Anatolia, as well as selections from well-known documents like the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) which still has an important role in defining Greek sovereignty, for example, over western Thrace. A separate section deals with Mount Athos, the monastic republic which has a special relationship with Greece and a status that is the subject of on-going debate.
Using a set of specially prepared colour maps, arranged in broadly chronological order, this study emphasises the geographical dimension to the history of modern Greece. Special features include: a sequence of maps showing how Britain, France and Russia tried to define the original state whose existence and sovereignty they continued to guarantee down to the 1920s; different ideas about the extent of Macedonia, and the extent of both the Ionian Islands, which were united with Greece in 1864 and the Dodecanese Islands, which became part of Greece only in 1947.
The Historical Essays
An historical and political commentary counterpoints the cartographical representation of events, population composition, geopolitical ideas and national aspirations. The text, explanatory and interpretive, also links the mix with a selection of documents, mostly treaties and protocols, which helped to define the territory of Greece and set out the nature and extent of Greek sovereignty.
Preface Introduction Map Section 1. New Maps 2. Historical Maps Historical Essays 1. Greece and Speakers of Greek 2. The Greek War of Independence, 1821-28 3. The Creation of Independent Greece 4. The Expansion of Greece, 1835-1913 5. The First World War (1914-18) and Greece's 'Anatolian Venture' (1919-22) 6. Second World War and its Consequences, 1939-49 7. Threats to the Territorial Integrity and Sovereignty of Greece, 1950-98 8. Mt. Athos Bibliography Selected Treaties And Documents Index
KEY TREATIES AND DOCUMENTS reproduced in the volume
1. Treaty of Paris, 5 November, 1815, (Hertslet No. 39)
2. Protocol of 4 April, 1826, (Hertslet No. 129)
3. Treaty of London, 6 July 1827 for the Pacification of Greece, (Hertslet No. 136)
4. Protocol of 22 March, 1829, (Hertslet No. 142)
5. Protocol of 3 February, 1830, [in French]
6. Protocol of 26 September, 1831 with an Instruction for the Allied Ambassadors, [in French]
7. Treaty of London, 7 May 1832, [in French and English parallel]
8. Arrangement ... for the Definitive Settlement of the Continental Limits of Greece, 21 July, 1832, (Hertslet No. 161)
9. Family Compact between Bavaria and Greece, 1 November, 1832, (Hertslet No. 163)
10. Explanatory and Supplementary Article to the Convention ... relative to the Sovereignty of Greece, 30 April 1833, (Hertslet No. 166)
11. Hatt-i Hümayun of Gülhane, 3 November 1839, (Hertslet No. 158)
12. Termination of the Bavarian Order of Succession, 16 May 1863, (Hertslet No. 343)
13. Protocol of 27 May, 1863, (Hertslet No. 344)
14. Protocol of 5 June, 1863 with Annexes A and B, (Hertslet No. 345)
15. Treaty of London, 13 July 1863, (Hertslet No. 347)
16. Decision of the Assembly of the Ionian Islands respecting the Union of the Ionian Islands to Greece, 19 October 1863, (Hertslet No. 345)
17. Treaty of London, 14 November 1863, (Hertslet No. 355)
18. Treaty of London, 29 March 1864, (Hertslet No. 357)
19. Convention ... Respecting the Claims of British Subjects and others for Services in the Ionian Islands, 29 March 1864, (Hertslet No. 358)
20. Protocol ... for the Withdrawal of British Forces from the Ionian Islands, 28 May 1864, (Hertslet No. 361)
21. Firman du Sultan promulguant le Règlement Organique pour la réorganisation de la Crète, 10 January 1868, [in French]
22. Declaration of the Allied Powers ... relative to the Obligations of Greece towards Turkey, and the restoration of Friendly Relations between those States, Paris, 20 January 1869, (Hertslet No. 416)
23. Turkish Firman modifying the Organic Law of Crete of January 10, 1868, 25 October 1878 (Hertslet No. 535)
24. Award of the Plenipotentiaries ... on the New Frontier Line to be drawn between Greece and Turkey, 1 July 1880, (Hertslet No. 569)
25. Convention ... for the Settlement of the Frontier between Greece and Turkey, 24 May 1881, (Hertslet No. 584)
26. Treaty of Peace between Greece and Turkey, Constantinople, 4 December 1897, [in French]
27. Note of the Greek Government stating the reasons for which Bulgaria, Greece, and Servia (sic) have declared war on Turkey, 17 October 1912, [in French]
28. Treaty of London, 30 May 1913
29. Treaty of Bucharest, 10 August 1913, Article V
30. Protocol annexed to Article V of the Treaty of Bucharest, [in French]
31. Treaty of Athens, 14 November 1913
32. Extracts from the Pact of London, 26 April 1915
33. Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918
34. Views of the Imperial Ottoman Government put to the Supreme Council in Paris verbally on 17 June, 1919 and followed up with a written statement dated 23 June, 1919
35. Extracts from Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, 17 November 1919
36. Declaration of the Congress of Sivas, 9 September 1919
37. Extracts from the Treaty of Sèvres, 10 August 1920
38. Treaty Between Greece and Italy relative to the sovereignty over the Aegean Islands, Paris, 10 August 1920 [in French]
39. Turkish National Pact, 28 January 1920
40. Mudania Armistice, 11 October 1922
41. Convention [between Greece and Turkey] concerning the exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, 30 January 1923
42. Extracts from the Treaty of Lausanne, 24 July 1923
43. Convention respecting the Thracian Frontier, 24 July 1923, (Parliamentary Papers 1923, vol. 15, (Treaty Series 16, 1923), pp. 128-37)
44. Declaration relating to Muslim Properties in Greece, 24 July, 1923
45. Straits of the Dardanelles Convention, 24 July 1923
46. International Convention Regarding the Régime of the Straits between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, with Protocol, Montreaux, 20 July, 1936 [in French]
47. Extracts from the United Nations' Charter, San Francisco, 29 June, 1945
48. Extracts from the Italian Peace Treaty, 10 February 1947
49. Extracts from the Bulgarian Peace Treaty, 10 February 1947
50. Greek Law No. 518 regarding the incorporation of the Dodecanese into Greece, 3 January 1948
51. Greek Law No. 517 regarding the nationality of the inhabitants of the Dodecanese ..., 3 January 1948
52. Article 105 of the Constitution of Greece, 1975 Governing the Status of Mt. Athos. (Ress 1993, 'The legal nature of joint declarations in general and of joint declarations annexed to the European Treaties in Particular'
53. Extracts from the Act concerning the accession of the Hellenic Republic (to the European Communities), 28 May, 1979
54. Extracts from the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1994
This list shows the titles of the new maps that have been created specifically to illustrate this project and also the reproductions of originals that have been included.
1.1. Distribution of Greek-speakers c. 1815 1.2. Distribution of Christians and Muslims, c. 1821, according to data submitted to the Poros Conference 2.1. Major events of 1821, according to George Finlay 2.2. Origins of the known Philhellenes 2.3. Major events of 1825 following the intervention of Ibrahim Pasha´s Egyptian army 3.1. Areas claimed by the Greek provisional government, 1822 3.2. Russian proposals for the ´pacification of Greece´, 1824 3.3. Extent of Greece according to the protocol of 2 July, 1828 3.4. Extent of Greece proposed at Poros by the allied Ambassadors, 12 December 1828 3.5. Extent of Greece proposed by the London Conference, 22 March, 1829 3.6. Extent of Greece proposed in the protocol of 3 February, 1830 4.1. Stages in the development of a Greek State, 1835-1947 4.2. The accession of the Ionian islands, 1863-64 4.3.1. The distribution of the Muslim population of Thessaly, 18814.3.2 4.3.2. Changes to the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire, 1878 4.3.3. The Northern frontier of Greece, 1881 and the rectification of 1897 4.3.4. The Bulgarian Exarchate, 1870-1912 4.4.1. The distribution of the Muslim and Christian populations of Crete, 4.5.1. Some definitions of Macedonia 4.5.2. Greek, Serbian and Bulgarian aspirations in Macedonia 4.5.3. Boundary changes, 1913 4.5.4. Proposals made for the boundary of Albania, 1912-14 5.1. The Macedonian front, 1918 5.2. Proposed divisions of Anatolia and Thrace, 1915-1920 5.3. Extent of Greek operations in Western Anatolia, 1919-22 5.4. The distribution of refugees in Greece, 1928 6.1. Italian invasion of Greece, October 1940-February 1941 6.2. German invasion of Greece (Operation Marita), 6-26 April 1941 and the attack on Crete (Operation Mercury), 20-31 May 1941 6.3. Axis occupation, 1941-43 6.4. Attack on the Gorgopotamos Viaduct, 25-26 November 1942 6.5. Destruction during the Axis occupation 6.6. Greek Civil War: Guerrilla concentrations at successive dates, 1948-49 6.7. The Dodecanese 7.1. Greek and Turkish claims to the continental shelf and territorial waters in the Aegean Sea 8.1. The Athos Peninsula
A. "Map Shewing the Boundary between Greece and Turkey, 21 July 1832"
B. "Carte Physique, Historique et Routière de la Grèce dressée ... d´après les materiaux recueillis par Comte Guilleminot", 1826
C. Zone of the Straits according to the Treaty of Sèvres: "Turkey in Europa/Zone of the Straits/Smyrna/The Islands Map No. 1", 1920
D. Turco-Greek Boundary. Outline Map Shewing Award at Berlin Conference, 1 July 1880: "Turco-Greek Frontier. To Accompany Military Annex to Convention of 24 May, 1881"